Are you aware of the critical threat lurking in your system right now? It’s not malware, nor is it a virus. It’s PowerShell – your powerful tool that hackers can use to carry out malicious activities. According to a recent study, PowerShell is a top source of critical threats in the cybersecurity landscape, so it is time to protect your business.
Let’s see how the top source critical threat is PowerShell and what you can do to protect your organisation from its cyber exposure!
What Is Powershell?
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PowerShell is a Microsoft command-line shell and scripting language that manages and automates various Windows operating system tasks. It provides powerful tools that allow you to manage files, configure system settings, and manipulate data using commands and scripts.
PowerShell was first introduced in 2006 to replace the traditional command prompt. It gives system administrators more control and flexibility when managing Windows-based environments. With PowerShell, you can access almost every aspect of the operating system, including the registry, files, and user accounts.
The language is built on top of the .NET framework, which means it can use .NET libraries to perform complex tasks. As such, PowerShell is a highly versatile and powerful scripting language. PowerShell scripts consist of verbs and nouns, for example, Get-Service, Set-Location, or Remove-Item. You can combine these commands to create scripts that automate complex tasks, saving time and effort.
Powershell As the Top Source Of Critical Threats
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As you see, you can improve your efficiency and effectiveness when working with Windows-based environments. Unfortunately, the same powerful capabilities that make Windows PowerShell a valuable tool for system administrators and cybersecurity professionals also make it a top source of critical threats. Wondering how?
For starters, malicious Powershell scripts can carry out various activities, such as downloading and executing malware, stealing data, and compromising an organisation’s security policy. Attackers use PowerShell to launch fileless attacks that evade traditional security measures, making it a top source of critical threats.
The Potential Impact of PowerShell’s Critical Threats
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PowerShell’s critical threats pose significant consequences for organisations. They have the potential to cause financial, operational, and reputational damage.
1. Data Theft
Attackers can use PowerShell to retrieve sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details, which they can use for financial gain. So, your organisation can face lost customer trust, regulatory fines, and reputational damage.
2. Disruption Of Business Operations
Another consequence of a PowerShell-based attack is the disruption of business operations. Attackers can use PowerShell to execute commands that delete files, disable services, or shut down systems, causing significant disruption to an organisation’s operations. It goes without saying how this would lead to lost revenue and productivity and damage your organisation’s reputation.
3. Intellectual Property Theft
If intellectual property is stolen through a PowerShell-based attack, your enterprise could lose its competitive advantage, suffer financial losses, and potentially face legal liability.
Here are some ways this attack can happen:
- Data exfiltration: attackers can use PowerShell to access and copy sensitive files from your organisation’s network, including proprietary software code, research and development documents, and customer lists.
- Credential theft: Attackers can access your employees’ login credentials, thus gaining access to other systems and data.
- Backdoors and persistence: Attackers can use PowerShell to create backdoors or establish continued access to your systems. This would allow them to continue exfiltrating data over an extended period.
4. Legal Liability
PowerShell-based attacks expose enterprises to legal liability, depending on the nature of the attack and compromised data. Here are some examples:
- Data breaches: If an attacker uses PowerShell to steal personal information such as social security numbers, credit card information, or medical records, your enterprise will be liable for failing to protect that data.
- Compliance violations: Many industries are subject to regulations that require specific data handling and security practices. As such, your enterprise may face fines and legal action if a PowerShell-based attack leads to a compliance violation.
- Negligence claims: If your organisation fails to take reasonable steps to protect its data and prevent an attack, it may face negligence claims from affected individuals or regulatory bodies.
So, your businesses need a comprehensive strategy to mitigate the possibility of such an attack. Let’s look at some of the best practices to consider today.
Mitigating PowerShell’s Critical Threats in Enterprise Environments
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PowerShell is appealing to attackers because it comes pre-installed on Windows operating systems, giving them a foothold in the system. Couple that with Powershell’s scripting capabilities, and these attackers become more malicious and efficient. So, how can you protect your organisation?
Here are some best practices for preventing PowerShell critical security threats:
I. Secure PowerShell with Script Execution Policy Settings
You can secure PowerShell by configuring script execution policy settings. These settings control whether you can execute scripts and, if so, which scripts are allowed.
By default, PowerShell’s script execution policy is set to “Restricted,” meaning you can’t run scripts. However, your organisation will need to enable script execution for legitimate purposes, such as running PowerShell scripts for system administration tasks.
So, configure script execution policy settings using Group Policy or PowerShell commands- consider limiting the ability to change these settings only to authorised personnel.
II. Use Constrained Language Mode to Limit PowerShell Functionality
Constrained Language Mode is a PowerShell security feature that limits the functionality of scripts. Used properly, it makes it more difficult for attackers to use PowerShell for malicious purposes.
You can enable Constrained Language Mode to prevent PowerShell scripts from accessing sensitive data or executing malicious commands in your organisation. In addition, restrict access to PowerShell by disabling it on endpoints that do not require it, such as workstations or laptops used by non-technical personnel.
III. Monitor PowerShell Usage with Script Block Logging
Script block logging is another PowerShell feature that logs all commands executed by PowerShell scripts, including the scripts themselves. When you enable it, you gain visibility into any PowerShell activity and identify potentially malicious scripts.
You can configure script block logging through Group Policy or PowerShell commands. In addition, consider using an endpoint security product, such as Cisco Secure Endpoint, to provide additional visibility and protection against malicious PowerShell attacks.
IV. Allow Only Signed Scripts
Signed scripts are digitally signed by a trusted publisher, indicating they have not been tampered with since their creation. You can allow only these kinds of scripts to be run in your organisation’s Powershell, thus denying attackers an avenue to run malicious attacks.
You will need to configure PowerShell to only allow the execution of signed scripts by enabling script signing policies. Finally, work with a digital risk management vendor or endpoint security product manager to ensure all scripts are signed. They will also investigate all unsigned scripts.
V. Restrict Windows Remote Management
Windows Remote Management (WinRM) is a protocol that remotely manages Windows systems, including PowerShell. Since it is accessible to attackers, it is a potential attack vector for PowerShell-based attacks.
If you want to limit the potential attack surface for PowerShell-based attacks, restrict WinRM access by configuring Windows Firewall rules, disabling unnecessary WinRM services, and managing script execution in Group Policy settings.
VI. Implement Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)
Role-based Access Control (RBAC) is a security model that limits access to Powershell resources based on user roles and responsibilities. It assigns users to specific roles, and each role determines what actions the user can perform within the organisation’s environment.
You will want to create different roles based on job functions and responsibilities for success. Then, assign the set of PowerShell execution commands that each user can execute to give them access to only what’s necessary for their role.
Conclusion on PowerShell Critical Threats
PowerShell is a powerful tool for system administration and automation, but it is also a top source of critical threats that can compromise your organisation’s security. As such, you must implement effective security measures to mitigate the risks associated with PowerShell-based attacks.
The practices we shared above, in tandem with other obvious measures like using strong passwords and training your employees on the best security policies, will prevent these attacks. Taking a proactive approach to securing PowerShell will protect your organisation against the ever-evolving cybersecurity threats in today’s digital landscape.
Remember that PowerShell is a powerful tool, and with the right security measures, you can use it safely and effectively to manage and secure company systems.