Web-based applications are becoming a key part of our daily lives. You can use these apps for virtually everything, from online shopping to restaurant reservations. Unluckily, with the evolution of web applications, so do the threats they face; one such threat is the XSRF attack.
In this post, we’ll dive deeper into XSRF attacks, how they work, their impact, and the measures to implement to protect your web applications from these malicious attacks.
What is an XSRF Attack?
An XSRF attack, also known as a cross-site request forgery or session riding, is a type of security attack in which the attacker manipulates a victim into acting on a site without the victim’s consent or knowledge. The attacker sends a malicious link or files to the victim, who is authenticated at the targeted site.
When the victim clicks on the malicious link or sends in the files, the attacker’s code runs in the context of the victim’s session. This allows the attacker to perform anything the victim can do on the website. An XSRF attacker can infiltrate sensitive information, access user accounts, and do other unauthorized actions.
What Are the Main Types of CSRF Vulnerabilities?
These are types of Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) vulnerabilities; attackers are always developing new methods to exploit web applications.
1. GET-Based XSRF
This is the most basic type of XSRF attack. The attacker usually generates a URL that includes the victim’s actionable parameters for the targeted website. When the victim clicks on the URL link, the action is performed without their consent or knowledge.
2. POST-Based XSRF
This type of CSRF attack is a bit more sophisticated than the GET-based XSRF. The attacker, in this case, creates a web form that’s filled out with the information needed to execute a certain command on the targeted website. Submission of the form initiates the action without the victim’s consent or knowledge.
3. Cookie-Based XSRF
4. Header-Based XSRF
This CSRF attack is based on the fact that some sites use HTTP headers for authenticated users. When the victim logs in, the attacker creates a malicious site that sends an HTTP request to the targeted site. Then, the victim’s browser sends the victim’s HTTP headers to the targeted site. As a result, the attacker can perform an act by impersonating the victim.
5. AJAX-Based XSRF
How Do I Detect CSRF Vulnerabilities?
To detect CSRF vulnerabilities, you will need both manual and automated testing techniques and a deep understanding of how the attackers operate. Identifying can be challenging since the attackers do not always leave traces. Nonetheless, here are some of the most common methods:
1. Manual Testing
This is among the best ways to detect CSRF vulnerabilities. This usually involves using a web browser and other tools to simulate an attack and identify any vulnerabilities in the application’s security. By trying to perform actions on the site without the user’s knowledge, testers can determine whether or not the web application is vulnerable to CSRF attacks.
2. Automated Testing
Several tools can scan a site for potential CSRF vulnerabilities during automated testing. These automated tools can be handy for detecting common CSRF attacks and identifying areas of the application that might be vulnerable to attack. Remember that the tools can sometimes miss or improperly identify some CSRF vulnerabilities.
3. Penetration Testing
To do a penetration test, you’ll need to hire a professional security tester to simulate a real-world attack on your website to identify any vulnerabilities. This testing is quite effective for detecting XSRF vulnerabilities, as the tester will have a solid understanding of how attackers operate and their different strategies.
4. Code Review
Code review involves assessing the website’s source code to identify any vulnerabilities attackers could exploit. While it might be tedious, code review is one of the best ways to find CSRF vulnerabilities that could otherwise go undetected.
5. Web Application Firewall
The web application firewall is another effective way of detecting and preventing CSRF attacks. This method can analyze incoming traffic and identify negative patterns, indicating a CSRF attack is in progress. Furthermore, they can prevent CSRF attacks or notify admins if one is attempted.
What Are the Best Practices for Preventing CSRF Vulnerabilities?
Preventing CSRF vulnerabilities in web applications is essential for preventing unauthorized access and protecting user information. Check out some of the best practices for preventing CSRF vulnerabilities:
1. Use Anti-CSRF Tokens
Anti-CSRF tokens are server-generated values and are usually included in each form submission. At the time of form submission, the server verifies the anti-CSRF token to determine whether the user made the request and not an attacker.
2. Use the Same-Site Attribute
This attribute is a security feature you can add to the user session cookies to prevent CSRF attacks. When the Same-Site attribute is set to “strict” or “lax,” the cookie is only transmitted with requests from the same website, making it harder for attackers to infiltrate user data.
3. Use HTTP Only and Secure Cookies
These security features can be added to users’ cookies to prevent CSRF attacks. When the HTTP Only attribute is set to true, cookies are inaccessible to client-side scripts and hence to attackers. Conversely, when the Secure attribute is preset to true, cookies can only be transferred through an encrypted connection, making it difficult for attackers to infiltrate users’ data.
4. Implement Proper Authentication and Authorization.
Proper authentication and authorization are essential for preventing CSRF attacks. Solid user authentication, including multi-factor authentication where available, should be implemented in web applications to prevent unauthorized access. In addition, they should implement role-based access control to restrict access to sensitive data to authenticated users only.
5. Install a Web Application Firewall
A web application firewall can monitor subsequent requests and deny suspicious ones. This includes request parameters or those from a different website.
6. Educate Users
Security awareness training on CSRF attacks and how to avoid them can help prevent attacks. Users should be advised to only click on submit forms and links from trusted sources and log out of their accounts at the end of each session to avoid a successful CSRF attack.
Practices that Don’t Work When Preventing XSRF Attacks
1. Using a Secret Cookie
Remember that every valid request will include all cookies, including the secret ones. On the other hand, all authentication tokens will be submitted irrespective of whether or not the end-user was deluded into submitting the request.
Moreover, the application container only uses session identifiers to link the request to a particular session object. Nevertheless, the session identifier doesn’t verify that the end-user sent the request.
2. URL Rewriting
Although this might be considered a handy CSRF prevention method since the attacker can’t guess the victim’s session ID, the user’s session ID is usually exposed in the URL. Avoid establishing a new security risk while addressing an existing one.
3. Multi-Step Transactions
Multi-step transactions are not effective when it comes to the prevention of CSRF attacks. It is conceivable for a CSRF attack to occur if an attacker can predict or infer each step of a completed transaction.
4. Accepting Post Requests Only
It is possible to design web applications that will solely accept POST requests for carrying out business logic. Besides, there is a common misunderstanding that an attacker cannot carry out a CSRF attack because they cannot create a malicious link, which is incorrect.
Frequently Asked Questions on the XSRF Attack
1. What’s an instance of Cross-Site Request Forgery?
CSRF, as mentioned earlier, is a vulnerability where an attack takes control of a website by impersonating an authenticated user. For instance, transferring funds to an attacker’s account or altering a victim’s email address.
2. How risky is CSRF?
CSRF is a moderate vulnerability because successful attacks require targeting individuals or small groups with high privileges. Besides, CSRF attacks are often well-planned to take advantage of a single user in the organization, such as the CEO, human resources manager, administrator, or finance department team member.
3. What does the XSRF Token mean?
An XSRF token is used to protect against CSRF attacks. A cross-site request forgery attack happens when an attacker attempts to trick a user into submitting a request for a site action that the victim did not initiate.
Featured Image Source: Unsplash.com